## Friday, May 10, 2019

### Handling GHC parser errors right

Handling GHC parser errors right

Did you know, a POk parse result from the GHC parser doesn't necessarily mean the parse was OK? This blog explains what's up with that. The source code below is from this example in the ghc-lib repo.

Here is code that tries to make a parse tree of a Haskell module.

parse :: String -> DynFlags -> String -> ParseResult (Located (HsModule GhcPs))
parse filename flags str =
unP Parser.parseModule parseState
where
location = mkRealSrcLoc (mkFastString filename) 1 1
buffer = stringToStringBuffer str
parseState = mkPState flags buffer location


The way to call the above code is like this.

case parse file flags s of
PFailed s ->
report flags $snd (getMessages s flags) POk s m -> do report flags$ fst (getMessages s flags)
analyzeModule flags m

In the PFailed s case (where s is the parse state), the expression snd (getMessages s flags) retrieves the errors and we report them. In the POk case, we report warnings and do whatever it is we wanted to do with the parse tree m right?

Not quite. The problem is that the parser produces two sorts of errors : "fatal" and "non-fatal". Thus far, we have only considered the "fatal" ones.

Fatal errors are such that production of a parse tree is impossible. Non-fatal parse errors are those that don't prevent construction of a parse tree. A parse that generates non-fatal errors is going to associate with a parse tree in some way non-conforming to the Haskell language specification.

The right way to write the POk case is like this.

POk s m -> do
let (warns, errs) = getMessages s flags
report flags warns
report flags errs
when (null errs) $analyzeModule flags m  The key point is analyzeModule is called only if there are absolutely no parse errors at all. A non-fatal error example is provided by the ImportQualifiedPost language extension (see this post for how to add a GHC language extension). Specifically, it is only legal to write import M qualified if the extension is in effect via pragma or the option -XImportQualifiedPost. In the event this syntax is used when the extension is not in effect, the user should see an error like  test/MiniHlintTest_non_fatal_error.hs:6:18: error: Found qualified' in postpositive position. To allow this, enable language extension 'ImportQualifiedPost'  and further analysis of the parse abandoned. ## Sunday, April 7, 2019 ### Announcing ghc-lib 0.20190404 Announcing ghc-lib 0.20190404 On behalf of Digital Asset I am excited to share with you the latest release of ghc-lib. As described in detail in the ghc-lib README, the ghc-lib project lets you use the GHC API for parsing and analyzing Haskell code without tying you to a specific GHC version. ## What's new The GHC source code in this release is updated to GHC HEAD as of April the 4th, 2019. Accordingly, the mini-hlint example in the ghc-lib repo was adjusted to accomodate GHC API changes to the ParseResult datatype and parser error handling. By far the biggest change though is this : the ghc-lib project now provides two packages, ghc-lib-parser and ghc-lib. The packages are released on Hackage, and can be installed as usual e.g. cabal install ghc-lib. Some projects don't require the ability to compile Haskell to GHC's Core language. If lexical analysis alone is sufficient for your project's needs, then the ghc-lib-parser package alone will do for that. The build time for ghc-lib-parser is roughly half of the combined build times of ghc-lib-parser and ghc-lib. That is, in this case, switching to the new release will decrease the build time for your project. Note that if your project does require compiling Haskell to Core, then your project will now depend on both the ghc-lib-parser and ghc-lib packages. The ghc-lib package "re-exports" the modules of the ghc-lib-parser package. So, if you depend upon the ghc-lib package, you'll get the ghc-lib-parser modules "for free". Sadly though, at this time, package import syntax (and we do recommend using package import syntax for these packages) doesn't quite work like you'd expect so that if you, import "ghc-lib" DynFlags for example, this will fail because DynFlags is in fact in the ghc-lib-parser package. In this case, you'd write, import "ghc-lib-parser" DynFlags and all would be well. The mini-compile example in the ghc-lib repo demonstrates mixing modules from both packages. Digital Asset make extensive use of the ghc-lib packages in the DAML smart contract language compiler and hope you continue to benefit from this project too! ## Wednesday, March 20, 2019 ### Bush fixing Travis and GitLab Bush fixing Travis and CI Ever had one of those days? You are not alone! This Saturday 9th March 2019, the GHC devs are going to announce that git://git.haskell.org/ghc.git has been decommissioned. The new official upstream GHC will be https://gitlab.haskell.org/ghc/ghc. Sadly (for us) this broke ghc-lib CI's Travis linux configuration. What does our CI do? The ghc-lib CI script pulls down the latest GHC sources and builds and tests them as a ghc-lib. The details of the problem are that Travis gives you a broken Ubuntu where cloning the official URL fails with a TLS “handshake error”. More generally, any Travis job that tries to git clone over the https protocol from a GitLab remote will fail the same way. This .travis.yml shows a workaround. The idea is to spin up a container before install that doesn’t have this problem and clone from there. The essential bits are: services: - docker # [Why we git clone on linux here] # At this time, git clone https://gitlab.haskell.org/ghc/ghc.git # from within CI.hs does not work on on linux. This appears to be a # known Travis/ubuntu SSL verification issue. We've tried many less # drastic workarounds. This grand hack is the only way we've found so # far that can be made to work. before_install: - | if [[ "$TRAVIS_OS_NAME" == "linux" ]]; then
docker pull alpine/git
docker run -ti --rm -v ${HOME}:/root -v$(pwd):/git \
fi


Note, MacOS docker services aren’t supported but that’s OK! The TLS handshake problem doesn’t exhibit in that configuration.

Update : It turns out that while this issue exists in Ubuntu 14.04 which Travis uses by default, it is “fixed” in Ubuntu 16.04. So by writing dist: xenial in your .travis.yml file, the above workaround can be avoided.

## Saturday, February 23, 2019

### Adding a GHC Language Extension

This note summarizes the essential mechanics of adding a new language extension to GHC. The example code will illustrate adding a Foo extension.

## Implementing the extension

The first step is to add a Foo constructor to the Extension type in libraries/ghc-boot-th/GHC/LanguageExtensions/Type.hs.

data Extension
= Cpp
| OverlappingInstances
...
| Foo


The next job is to extend xFlagsDeps in compiler/main/DynFlags.hs.

xFlagsDeps = [
flagSpec "AllowAmbiguousTypes" LangExt.AllowAmbiguousTypes,
...
flagSpec "Foo"                 LangExt.Foo
]

That's all it takes. With these two changes, it is now possible to enable Foo in Haskell source files by writing {-# LANGUAGE Foo #-} or from a compile command by passing the argument -XFoo.

## Testing for the extension

### Lexer

In compiler/parser/Lexer.x, locate data ExtBits and add a constructor for Foo.

data ExtBits
= FfiBit
| ...
| FooBit

Next, extend the where clause of function mkParserFlags' with a case for Foo.
langExtBits =
FfiBit xoptBit LangExt.ForeignFunctionInterface
.|. InterruptibleFfiBit xoptBit LangExt.InterruptibleFFI

...

.|. FooBit xoptBit LangExt.FooBit


The function xtest is then the basic building block for testing if Foo is enabled. For example, this specific function tests a bitmap for the on/off status of the Foo bit.
fooEnabled :: ExtsBitMap -> Bool
fooEnabled = xtest FooBit

In practice, testing for a language extension in the lexer is called from a function computing a lexer action. Suppose foo to be such a function and the action it computes depends somehow on whether the Foo language extension is in effect. Putting it all together, schematically it will have the following form.
foo :: (FastString -> Token) -> Action
foo con span buf len = do
exts <- getExts
if FooBit xtest exts then
...
else
...


### Parser

This utility computes a monadic expression testing for the on/off state of a bit in a parser state monad.

extension :: (ExtsBitmap -> Bool) -> P Bool
extension p = P $\s -> POk s (p$! (pExtsBitmap . options) s)

An expression of this kind can be evaluated in the semantic action of a parse rule in compiler/parser/Parser.y. Here's an example of how one might be used.
foo :: { () }
: 'foo'  {}
| {- empty -}    {% do
foo_required <- extension fooEnabled
when foo_required $do loc <- fileSrcSpan parseErrorSDoc loc$ text "Missing foo"
}


### Renaming, type-checking and de-sugaring

All of renaming, typechecking and desurgaring occur in the contexts of TcRnIf _ _ monads. Function xoptM :: Extension -> TcRnIf gbl lcl Bool is provided for extension testing in such contexts. Here's a schematic of how such a test might be used in a renaming function.

import GHC.LanguageExtensions

updateFoos :: [AvailInfo] -> RnM (TcGlbEnv, TcLclEnv)
updateFoos info = do
(globals, locals) <- getEnvs
opt_Foo <- xoptM Foo
if not opt_Foo then
return (globals, locals)
else
let globals' = ...
locals' = ...
return (globals', locals')
`