## Saturday, August 9, 2014

### Digits

Counting is a common problem in computer programming. I recently had a need for an algorithm to compute the number of base 10 digits of an integer (for example, there are 3 digits in the number 569). Here's what I worked out.
module type S=sig
(**Count the number of base 10 digits of an integer*)
val digits : int -> int

(**Prepend with zeroes as necessary to get the 'right'
number of columns *)
val digits_10 : int -> int -> string

end

module A : S = struct
let digits n =
let rec loop acc n =
let k = n / 10 in
if k = 0 then acc else loop (acc + 1) k
in loop 1 n

let digits_10 i n =
let l = digits n in
let s = string_of_int (abs n) in
let maybe_sign = if n < 0 then "-" else "" in
if l >= i then (maybe_sign^s)
else
let lz=string_of_int 0 in
let rec aux acc j =
if j = 0 then acc
else
aux (lz^acc) (j - 1) in
maybe_sign ^ aux s (i - l)
end

module Test_io = struct

let test_0 () =
let print_line i =
Printf.printf "There are %d digits in %d\n" (A.digits i) i
in
let rec loop i n =
if i = n then ()
else
let x  =
int_of_float (10. ** (float_of_int i)) in
print_line x; loop (i + 1) n
in (*Range over 0 to to 10^19 *) loop 0 19

let test_1 () =
let print_line i =
Printf.printf "%s\n" i
in
let rec loop i n =
if i = n then ()
else
let x = A.digits_10 3 i in
print_line x; loop (i + 1) n
in (*Range over 0 to 100, 3 columns*)loop 0 100

let run () = test_0 (); test_1 ()

end

let () = Test_io.run ()

The program outputs
There are 1 digits in 1
There are 2 digits in 10
There are 3 digits in 100
There are 4 digits in 1000
There are 5 digits in 10000
There are 6 digits in 100000
There are 7 digits in 1000000
There are 8 digits in 10000000
There are 9 digits in 100000000
There are 10 digits in 1000000000
There are 11 digits in 10000000000
There are 12 digits in 100000000000
There are 13 digits in 1000000000000
There are 14 digits in 10000000000000
There are 15 digits in 100000000000000
There are 16 digits in 1000000000000000
There are 17 digits in 10000000000000000
There are 18 digits in 100000000000000000
There are 19 digits in 1000000000000000000
000
001
002
003
004
005
006
.
.
.
097
098
099


Fun, fun, fun!